Mesopotamia is the name for a medieval region on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, located today in the Middle East. The region corresponds to most of what Iraq is today, as well as parts of Iran, Kuwait, Syria and Turkey. Mesopotamia is important in history because it was the cradle of civilization because significant events throughout history took place there.
History of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia encouraged human settlement because the constant flooding of the two rivers made the soil suitable for agriculture. During the Bronze Age, Mesopotamia was home to empires such as the Assyrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Sumerians. These empires were followed by the Achaemenid Empire, after which Alexander the Great conquered it in 332 BC. The region was then ruled by the Greek empires of the Seleucids and Parthians, the Romans, the empires of the Sassanids and finally the Muslim Caliphate in the 7th century.
Geography of Mesopotamia
Both rivers have their sources in the Armenian Mountains. Rivers are part of an extensive river system that also includes numerous tributaries. The climate of the region is semi-arid and is home to a large desert in the north. The rivers are integrated and drained into the Persian Gulf. The Zagros Mountains limit the area to the northeast, and melting snow from the peaks helps with irrigation. The high groundwater level in the region also facilitates irrigation. Since the Middle Ages, a canal has been built in the area to reduce floods and promote human settlement. Pastoralism was practiced in the area alongside agriculture, and people participated in the remote trade of agricultural products for other materials such as wood and precious metals. The Arabian Plateau borders the region to the southeast.
Archaeological evidence and scientific texts have shed light on elements of Mesopotamian culture. Festivals were held every month to celebrate various events such as the New Year, military victories and deities. Music was also accepted in the ancient region, and songs were passed down through generations as a form of oral transmission. The most important musical instrument used by the people of Mesopotamia is the oud. It is made of wood and is considered a precursor to the lute of Europeans. Certain games play important roles in Mesopotamian art, including hunting, wrestling, boxing, gender type, and major directions. Ancient Mesopotamia was portrayed as a patriarchal society in which boys were enrolled in school and learned various trades, while girls stayed at home cooking, doing household chores, and caring for other children. However, women could divorce and own property. Some graves excavated from the area contain valuable materials and other items.
Contributes to human development
Mesopotamia is known as the cradle of civilization due to numerous events. The Sumerian language is considered to be the earliest language in Mesopotamia. Other languages spoken by the Mesopotamian population include Subartuan, Akkadian, and ancient Aramaic. The wedge shape was invented in the region and facilitated literacy efforts. Cities and temples in Mesopotamia had extensive libraries that allowed the population to learn and write. Numerous Babylonian literary works are still translated today. Mesopotamian scholars made great strides in mathematics, astronomy, art, medicine, technology, religion, and philosophy.