Government of Iceland
The Icelandic government acts as a representative democratic republic with a parliamentary system. This framework means that the public chooses politicians who will represent their interests in government. In Iceland, politicians belong to several political parties. This country is governed by a president and a prime minister. To ensure the separation of powers, the constitution was drafted to establish 3 branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial.
The executive branch of government consists of the president, prime minister and cabinet.
The Icelandic president is elected for 4 terms. However, this position is mostly ceremonial because the powers in question are limited. The president appoints ministers to the government based on the recommendations of political party leaders. In addition, the president signs the bills, has a veto, and can submit bills to the legislature. If the President is unavailable for any reason, three persons may act in their absence: the Prime Minister, the President of Parliament and the President of the Supreme Court.
The prime minister is appointed by the president as head of government. A person in this position is responsible for ensuring the performance of ministerial duties and compliance with laws and regulations enacted by the legislature.
The legislature consists of Althing, the oldest parliament in the world. It met from 930 AD, with breaks in sessions from 1800 to 1845 during the unification of the country with Norway. In 1991, the Althing became a unicameral legislature with 63 seats. Prior to that, he practiced with the upper and lower home. All representatives are elected on the basis of proportional representation. Its members represent 6 constituencies or districts in Iceland and are elected to meet four-year conditions. Currently, the Independence Party has a majority with 21 seats. They are followed by the Left Green Movement (10), the Pirate Party (10), the Progress Party (8), the Reform Party (7), the Bright Future (4) and the Social Democratic Alliance (3).
The Icelandic Legal Department consists of the National Court, the Supreme Court and the Lower Courts.
The National Court was established in 1905 to oversee the cases of cabinet members. It consists of 15 members: 5 judges of the Supreme Court; professor of constitutional law; President of the District Court; and 8 people elected by MPs in 6 years. It met only once in 2011.
The Supreme Court is the highest appellate court in the country. This dish was founded in 1919, and first assembled in 1920. The President nominates 9 judges for the Supreme Court. These persons must be confirmed by the Minister of the Interior. Once in office, judges elect the president and vice president of the court. The President of the Court of Justice is responsible for managing the work of judges and for managing the entire work of the Court.