From 1991 to 2002, Algeria was embroiled in a civil war that engaged the government against Islamic rebel groups. Over 100,000 people died in the Algerian civil war, resulting in the victory of the government. The country’s security and political stability have improved since then. The 1976 Constitution of Algeria was amended in 1979 and later amended in 1988, 1989 and 1996. This Constitution was amended in 2008 and a second constitution was approved in 2016. The nation is a multi-party state and had over 40 legal political parties. Several sources agree that power in Algeria is not its constitutional bodies, but other informal forces, from the military to men from the ruling party.
The executive branch of the Algerian government
The duties of the head of state in Algeria are performed by the president. The country has universal suffrage and elects a head of state for five years. The Algerian President fulfills the necessary tasks as Commander-in-Chief of the Algerian Armed People’s Police. He also appoints the Prime Minister and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, in addition to the High Security Council. The Prime Minister in turn appoints the members of the Council of Ministers.
Legislature of the Government of Algeria
Legislative tasks in Algeria are carried out by two houses, the National Assembly and the Council of the Nation. The latter is the upper chamber and has 144 seats. 48 members receive appointments from the president, while the other 96 are elected indirectly. Meetings of the nation are chaired by the president, represented by two vice presidents. The National Assembly serves as the lower house and has 462 members. Members are elected by the electorate, and eight seats are reserved for citizens living abroad. The members of this institution are elected for five years by proportional representation.
Judicial branch of the Algerian government
The Algerian judicial system has civil and military courts. Each vilayet (province) has a court of first instance that conducts both civil and criminal proceedings. Islamic law (sharia) is used to resolve social issues in civil courts. Military courts give military members hearings in military cases. In some cases, military courts have ruled on civilian cases related to terrorism and other security-related crimes. The Constitutional Council has a mandate to review the constitutionality of laws, treaties and regulations even though it is not part of the judiciary. At the top of the Algerian judicial system is the Supreme Court. Although the Algerian constitution provides for an independent judiciary, its power is limited by the executive. For example, the President may appoint and dismiss judges without the consent of Parliament.
Administration of Algeria
Algeria is divided into 48 provinces (Wilaya) and each is headed by a governor (Welsh). The governors are accountable to the Minister of the Interior. The wilaya is divided into daire, which are further divided into parishes. The elected assembly governs the wilays and parishes.
Problems with the Algerian government
Algeria’s population growth has triggered urban migrations in which social services are not sufficient to cope with such population growth. The country continues to suffer from low employment and unemployment and insufficient industrial productivity. The economic program was launched in 1993 with the aim of liberalizing the economy, promoting employment and enabling the country’s competitiveness in the international market.