Earth is the only planet known to live life and one of the few that has ideal living conditions. Therefore, the Earth is very special and its protection is of the utmost importance for all the species that inhabit planet Earth. However, there are some natural factors that scientists have identified as probable causes of the destruction of the earth and humanity, with limitations to human intervention to prevent them from happening. These factors are also known as non-anthropogenic causes of global catastrophe.
The event of an impact is the fall of extraterrestrial objects to the earth’s surface, which usually leads to a number of physical effects. Alien objects range from tiny meteoroids to huge asteroids several kilometers in diameter. Although most of the energy from these astronomical objects is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere during entry, large asteroid impacts have generated thousands of megatons of energy, more energy than any nuclear weapon. The earth had a long history of impact events that basically shaped its physical and chemical composition. Scientists even believe that the impact event that occurred millions of years ago is the origin of Earth’s water. These collisions also have detrimental effects on the Earth’s biosphere and have historically resulted in the extinction of thousands of species. An example is the influence of Chicxuluba, which occurred several million 66 years ago and was the main cause of the mass extinction of the Cretaceous and Paleogene, where about 75% of all plant and animal species were wiped out. The astronomical object behind the Chicxuluba impact was an asteroid estimated at 6.2 miles long and 9.3 miles wide, leaving a crater 112 miles wide in the Gulf of Mexico.
Such impact events involving large astronomical objects are very rare and are estimated to take place over millions of years. Few impacts have been observed in recent history, including the Tunguska event of 1908, in which a 600-foot meteoroid fell near the Tunguska River and leveled 770 square kilometers of surrounding forest in the largest impact event in recorded history. The events mainly occur in regions with little or no human settlement and therefore have minimal human losses. In the hypothetical scenario of a large astronomical object falling on a large city, the effects would be catastrophic in terms of human casualties and material damage. The impact of events can lead to the end of human civilization and even to the extinction of humanity. Given the potential danger posed by asteroids and other nearby Earth objects, governments and large institutions are involved in developing ambitious projects to prevent such a catastrophe. For example, the U.S. government conducted research to map at least 90% of nearby 1-kilometer-diameter asteroids.
Alien invasion is a popular topic in science fiction literature. The first publication depicting an alien invasion of Earth was “Micromegas,” published by Voltaire in 1752, and whose story included large aliens from Sirius and Saturn. However, HG Wells’s “War of the Worlds” is a book that has popularized the topic around the world. Outside of literary works, an alien invasion is considered a possible cause of a global catastrophe, as scientists believe an alien invasion would either result in the enslavement of humanity or even the complete destruction of the planet. Although the existence of such extraterrestrial life has yet to be discovered, some scientists believe it exists, albeit far, far away in galaxies. Nevertheless, the risk of alien invasion is a serious problem in the United States, as the state even enacts laws based on the 1969 issue known as the “Alien Exposure Act”.
A pandemic is the uncontrolled spread of a contagious disease over a large area that usually crosses international borders. Pandemics are one of the most likely non-anthropogenic causes of a global catastrophe, as infectious diseases are usually extremely difficult to spread due to related logistical problems. According to the World Health Organization, a pandemic begins as an animal infection that is later transmitted to humans, spreading to humans affecting millions of people in a relatively short period of time before it is contained, either naturally or by human intervention. The current worldwide pandemic is the HIV / AIDS pandemic that has claimed millions of lives worldwide.
The next pandemic in the world is the malaria pandemic with about 0.5 billion new cases recorded worldwide each year. The Black Death of the Middle Ages is by far the worst pandemic in the country’s history. The Black Death, a pandemic caused by bubonic plague and spread by rats, resulted in the deaths of up to 200 million people worldwide between 1347 and 1353. The pandemic decimated the European population by as much as 60% and stabilized the population. more than a century. The Spanish flu from the early 20th century is one of the deadliest pandemics in recent history, as that pandemic flu killed about 100 million people (which is 5% of the world’s population) in 18 months. Scientists predict a new pandemic in the near future as pathogens become more resistant to antibiotics such as Enterococcus and Serratia marcescens.
Natural climate change
In many cases, humanity has been blamed for climate change for human activities that are harmful to the environment. However, climate change is not a new phenomenon and even precedes human evolution. Throughout the history of the Earth, the climate has been constantly changing ranging from ice ages to temperate periods. The country is believed to have gone through an ice age after 40,000 years when global temperatures plummeted, causing ice caps to spread from the poles to the tropics. The ice age would have catastrophic effects on modern civilization, because while the tropics would still have ideal temperatures for normal settlements, water would become scarce and the world would plunge into a food crisis.
Cosmic threats are probably the most terrifying of all non-anthropogenic causes of global catastrophe because they are extremely difficult to predict, and some have the potential to destroy a world without human knowledge. An example of a cosmic threat is a burst of gamma rays, which is one of the most powerful sources of energy in the universe, a burst that releases as much energy as the sun has released during its lifetime. Although very unlikely, a gamma-ray burst aimed at the Earth would cause its destruction. Other cosmic threats are solar flares, hypernovae and black holes.