The Italian president is the head of state and nominates some of the highest positions in government, while at the same time being at the center of Italian foreign policy. Before the first presidential election in 1946, Italy was a monarchy replaced by a parliamentary referendum in a national referendum. The President of Italy is elected every seven years by a college consisting of both houses of parliament and three representatives from each region. The president’s duties include appointing the prime minister, ratifying international treaties and declaring war with parliamentary approval, approving laws in both houses, passing laws and issuing offices, and convening national referendums on the Constitution. The President of Italy is also the Commander of the Armed Forces.
Enrico De Nicola
Enrico De Nicola was the first President of the Republic of Italy, holding office from 1946 to 1948. Enrico 9, born November 9 in Naples, graduated in law from the University of Naples in 1877. During his career as a lawyer, he gained a reputation as one of the best lawyers in Italy. Enrico identified with the Italian Liberal Party and represented Afragol in the House of Representatives between 1896 and 1909. He held several government positions, including Secretary of State for the Colonies, Secretary of State for Treasury, and President of the House of Representatives. After the rise of fascism, Enrico distanced himself from the government and focused on his law firm. After the overthrow of Benito Mussolini in 1919, Enrico was the main mediator between the Italian crown and allies in the transition of power. Enrico was elected by the newly formed Constituent Assembly on July 1, 1943. He is credited with leading Italy into a fully functional republic. He will be remembered as a noble and humble man. He did not run for the next election and was appointed life senator since 1946. Enrico died in October 1956 in Torre del Greco, Italy.
Luigi Einaudi succeeded Enrico De Nicola as president and served between 1948 and 1955. Born on March 24, 1874, Luigi graduated in law from the University of Turin in 1895. He was exposed to socialist ideas and began to contribute to La Stampa, Turin’s most popular newspaper. He was a professor at the University of Turin, the Polytechnic of Turin and the University of Bocconi. He fled Italy to Switzerland after the proclamation of the armistice in 1943.
Upon his return to Italy in 1945, Luigi served as Governor of the Bank of Italy, as a member of the Constituent Assembly, as Minister of the Budget and as Deputy Prime Minister. He became a member of the Senate of the Italian Republic in 1948, and was elected president on May 11, 1948. He is considered a brilliant economist and a shrewd politician. He is also remembered for his enthusiasm for agricultural activities because he was involved in the winemaking tradition on his farm. He died on October 30, 1961 in Rome, Italy.
Giovanni Gronchi was the third President of the Italian Republic and served from 1955 to 1962. Born on September 10, 1887 in Pontedera, Giovanni graduated in literature and philosophy from the University of Pisa. He was a high school professor in various Italian cities from 1911 to 1915. After volunteering in the First World War, he became the founder of the Catholic party “Popular Party”. He was elected Member of Parliament in 1919 and served as Undersecretary of State for Industry and Trade. He became the leader of the People’s Party in 1924 and stood on the front line of the Aventine movement, which opposed the fascist regime. He was subsequently expelled from parliament and worked in the business. After World War II, he served in several government positions, and was elected president on May 11, 1955. He made efforts to improve Italy’s international relations, despite being criticized for not “opening up to the left” in Italian politics. Giovanni died on October 17, 1978.
Antonio Segni succeeded Giovanni Gronchi as president and served between 1962 and 1964. Born on February 2, 1891 in Sassari, Sardinia, Antonia studied agriculture and commercial law. He became a member of the Italian People’s Party in 1919 and was an organizer in the provinces. Antonio continued to teach agricultural law at the universities of Perugia, Pavia and Cagliari for 17 years after political parties were banned under fascist rule. He was the founder of the Christian Democratic Party in 1943, after holding numerous government positions in successive governments under the leadership of the Christian Democratic Party. His most important achievements were the agricultural reforms he introduced as Minister of Agriculture (1946-1951). He was prime minister for two years before being elected president. During this time, Italy was a co-founder of the European Economic Community (EEC) and social reforms were introduced. He served as president for two and a half years, and resigned due to deteriorating health. Antonio died on December 1, 1972 in Rome, Italy.
President of the Italian Republic
|President of the Italian Republic||Mandate|
|Enrico De Nicola||1946-1948|
|Oscar Luigi Scalfaro||1992-1999|
|Carlo Azeglio Ciampi||1999-2006|
|Sergio Mattarella (previous)||2015-present|