Afghanistan is a landlocked country in Asia. The country has mountainous terrain with mostly dry parts. Some frogs and toads thrive in the waters provided by countries ’rivers, reservoirs, lakes and swamps. These amphibians are mostly found in relatively stable populations, so most are listed as the least affected. However, human activities continue to expose the habitats of these animals to degradation and decay, which raises concerns about the future stability of these species.
Indigenous amphibians from Afghanistan
Mountain frog Baluch
The mountain frog Baluch is one of the least endangered species and a highly aquatic species found in rivers, swamps and freshwater wetlands of Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. The mountain frog spends time in the water and activity is reduced. Reproduction takes place in water, and some eggs are laid on aquatic vegetation. The diet of the mountain frog consists of insects, small fish, crabs and other aquatic invertebrates. Habitat loss and degradation are constant threats to mountain frog populations.
Iranian toad without ear
The Iranian ear toad is classified as the smallest species in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and Iraq. It inhabits tropical and subtropical grasslands, wetlands like wetlands, and even urban settlements. The Iranian earless toad is constantly threatened by habitat loss and degradation due to pollution and extensive agriculture. The Iranian earless toad generally occupies high altitudes of about 2,250 m. Breeding occurs during the monsoon season with eggs laid in double wires attached to aquatic vegetation in farms.
A croaking frog
The sliding frog is the least worrying species found on the edges of boiling water bodies. The frog has a medium-sized head, slender and pointed fingers with a spotted olive on the brown upper body with a spotted underside. The frog is widespread in most South Asian countries, including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan and Myanmar. Frog habitats include a variety of wetlands, including wetlands and pools.
Bull frog in the Indus Valley
The bull frog is a freshwater frog native to Afghanistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Pakistan and India. The night frog spends most of its time searching for vegetation around its habitats (mostly freshwater wetlands) that feed on insects, mice, shrews, earthworms, roundworms, snakes and invertebrates. The upper part of the frog’s body is usually green or olive. The edible frog is hunted and raised in homes for a food source. The bull is solitary and sometimes occupies holes and bushes near permanent water bodies.
An ordinary frog
The common frog is one of the least concerned species and mostly lives in water. On the body of the frog it usually has a green tint with variants that are brown or gray. The length of the frog is between 12 and 17 cm, and the males are smaller than the females. The food of the marsh frog consists of small rodents, fish, small amphibians, fish, insects, spiders, dragonflies, earthworms and pigeons. The common frog is found in warm areas of Europe and Asia, including Iran and Afghanistan.
Threats and protection efforts in Afghanistan
With continued destruction and habitat loss, Afghan amphibians are constantly threatened by their population, exacerbated by the country’s political instability. Efforts, albeit few, have been made to ensure the diversity of the country.
|Indigenous amphibians from Afghanistan||Scientific name|
|Mountain frog Baluch||Chrysopaa sternosignata|
|Iranian toad without ear||Pseudepidalea surda|
|A croaking frog||Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis|
|Bull frog in the Indus Valley||Hoplobatrachus tigerinus|
|An ordinary frog||Pelophylax ridibundus|