It is very easy to get overwhelmed by geological time schedules; as an example, this new on Lake Paratetis, larger than the Mediterranean Sea, which dried up almost 8 million years ago. In biology, too, the time scales on which species evolve do not appear to be very manageable, and therefore evolution is partly a process that is easy to fit. confusion, like the one that circulated in last weekseven if it is there bacteria that mutate and develop in a very short time scale. So what can we say about the time scales used in astrophysics! How can we understand and appreciate that we know what happened 370,000 years after the Big Bang, now that the universe is almost 14,000 million years old, or that we know that the age of the solar system is 4,500 million years?
However, there are certain phenomena in the universe, the most extreme and the most difficult to understand, which occur very, very quickly. Today we will focus on a concrete and fascinating example: How long does it take for a black hole to form? There are no easy questions, much less simple answers, so here are some ideas on this topic.
Most known black holes have a stellar origin. These are the remnants left when a massive star dies. This material means stars that are at least 10 times larger in mass than the Sun. These stars are rare, but they exist: an example is Rigel, which weighs about 20 times the mass of the Sun and is the brightest star in the constellation Orion (although also called Beta Orionis, which “would mean“Which is the second brightest!), Now visible at the end of July shortly before sunrise, to the east (you’d better wait for winter to watch Orion well).” Rigel is on one of Orion’s knees or legs, it all depends on how you imagine a hunter with a bow, but the Arabs, where the name comes from, saw when they called it the “foot of a giant.” At the other end of Orion, on the shoulder, is Betelgeuse (which is said to also come from Arabic and means “on the giant’s arm”), a red giant whose color difference from Rigel is magnificent and visible to the naked eye. A star like Rigel, which is not one of the most massive known, lives “only” for about 15 million years. It’s been about 8 million years, so at a time similar to the time since Lake Paratetis dried up, Rigel could explode like a supernova and leave us a black hole.
The black hole that Rigel is likely to leave to his descendants ( evaporation black holes is another topic, but we have already assumed that it is better to wait until the stellar black hole disappears) it will be several times more massive than the Sun. Rigel will lead to something similar to the smallest known black hole, a controversial title known as Unicorn and the least poetic 2MASS J05215658 + 4359220, both about 3 solar masses are stuck in an area slightly larger in diameter than Madrid.
Most known black holes have a stellar origin. Remains remain when a massive star dies
At the other end, we know black holes of stellar origin up to about 15 solar masses. Its origin is probably stars a hundred times more massive than the Sun, as is the case eta-Carinae. Such a material star lives on the order of 3 million years … and eta-Carinae is about 3 million years old whenever (which means in the next millennium) will leave us with a nice black hole.
So stellar black holes can form in millions of years, which have evolved slowly since evolution Homo habilis. But thanks today gravitational wavesWe know black holes up to 62 masses of the Sun Where do such monsters come from? In particular, it is the result of the merging of two black holes with a mass of about 30 and 35 Suns. The parents of the creature may have a stellar origin, but they become too large for the stars we are used to. They may have come from the first stars to form when there was nothing in the universe but hydrogen and helium. We think that these early stars must have had masses several hundred times larger than the Sun, even a thousand times larger, and must have undergone extremely rapid evolution. We do not know any stars of this type, they are known as stars Population IIIwhile our Sun is Population I and the stars that certainly gave the Sun and Earth almost all their heavy elements (we mean more than helium) are Population II. The stars of Population III must have lived fast, as if there were none tomorrow and disappeared in 1 or 2 million years, and it is not clear to us whether they left black holes or were destroyed even more violently than a supernova and released all their material into interstellar space.
This is a record for our question of how long a black hole takes: 1-2 million years? Maybe not. We also don’t know about any, but we think of what is known as primary black holes. These black holes could have formed a few seconds after the Big Bang and fill the universe today and remain virtually undetectable to our telescopes. They could be as small as a tennis ball, where they gathered a bunch of several countries. This means that they can be much smaller than black holes “we are used to”. But also not too small, because the original black holes smaller than a trillion kilograms (a hundred times smaller than Halley’s comet) could be evaporate in the time that has passed since the Big Bang.
As you can see, there are black holes of all colors, although we should not say that, because according to the so-called “no hair” or “no hair” sentences, black holes have only 3 properties and none of them are colored hair, hence the name of the sentence (physicists have like jokes, it’s not just a matter of this blog). However, it is clear that there are animals of a very different type outside, at the time of the blink, the universe was able to create thousands of black holes in today’s Milky Way, and at some point everything that remains stars will be black holes and black dwarfs.
Pablo G. Pérez González He is a researcher at the Astrobiology Center, dependent on the High Council for Scientific Research and the National Institute of Aeronautics (CAB / CSIC-INTA)
Cosmic Void It is the part in which our knowledge of the universe is presented in a qualitative and quantitative way. The intention is to explain the importance of understanding the universe not only from a scientific point of view, but also from a philosophical, social and economic point of view. The name “cosmic vacuum” refers to the fact that the universe is and is largely empty, with less than 1 atom per cubic meter, despite the fact that, paradoxically, there are a quintillion atoms per cubic meter in our environment that invites us to think. over our existence and the presence of life in the universe. The section is made up Pablo G. Pérez González, researcher at the Center for Astrobiology; Patricia Sánchez Blázquez, Professor at Complutense University of Madrid (UCM); Y Eva Villaver, researcher at the Center for Astrobiology