Ecological regions of Swaziland 2021


Swaziland is a hilly and large country with rains and temperatures that vary from season to season. Ecology Swaziland corresponds to the ecology of other South African countries such as Lesotho and South Africa. The ecological regions of the country have diverse flora and fauna and water bodies that have represented the life of communities for centuries.

Mosaic of Maputaland coastal forest

The Maputaland coastal forest mosaic ecoregion is classified among tropical and subtropical moist deciduous forest leaves. This is an ecological area native to the coast of the Indian Ocean in South Africa. The region also extends to other South African countries such as Mozambique and South Africa.

The climate of the region ranges from subtropical to tropical. The minimum rainfall falls to less than 600 mm, while the maximum rainfall can be up to 1000 mm. Along the ecoregion there are wetlands like lakes, swamps and pristine forests. The region has a diverse flora. Plants such as euphorbia and aloe vera can be found in the area, while the trees include yellow wood, forest and white witch. The region is home to more than 400 species of birds, along with mammals like the leopard and the African elephant.

The forests of Zambeziana and Mopana

The ecological region of Zambezian and Mopane Woodlands is classified into tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrubby landscapes. The terrain is mostly flat, and the dominant tree is mopan with rough bark, while the dominant trees are acacia and baobab. The Nkomanti River in Swaziland lies in an ecoregion and flows into South Africa. The region is home to a variety of wildlife, largely thanks to government protection of biodiversity. Animals include elephants, buffaloes, rhinos, leopards, giraffes, kudu, lions, hyenas and cheetahs. Reptiles in the region include lizards and snakes among other bird species.

The ecoregion receives most of the rain between November and April. The average amount of rain ranges from only 450 to 710 mm. Average temperatures are between 18 and 24 degrees Celsius. Although the region is not rich in agricultural productivity, it is threatened by activities such as human settlement, land conversion and pastures.

Drakensberg Montana Forests, Lawn and Shrubs

The forests, grasslands, and shrubs of the Drakensberg Montana are classified as Montana biomes of lawns and shrubs. The ecoregion is located in the middle and upper layers of Drakensberg in Swaziland and extends to Lesotho and South Africa. Different species of frogs, lizards and birds live in the ecoregion. Environmental threats such as land conversion, deforestation, grazing and invasive plant species have threatened the region and are now classified as endangered / critical.

Zambezian Lowveld

The Zambezi Lowveld is classified as a freshwater biome of the Zambezi. The region is characterized by seasonal / perennial rivers, coastal lakes, wetlands and wetlands. Rivers like Umbuluzi and Usutua are located in the region. The terrain of the region consists of sandy soils that lie on a flat coastal plain. The ecoregion has a warm and humid climate, with the highest amounts of rain occurring between October and March. The region has diverse flora such as papyrus swamp, palm garden, coastal shrubs, mangroves, open forests and river forests. Over 100 species of fish such as catfish, cichlids, gobi and mochokida inhabit the waters. Mammals such as the hippopotamus, the southern reed, the water mongoose and the African wetland rat can be found along the waters. Ecoregion is vital for many species of birds and other migratory birds. There are also different species of snakes in the area.

Southern temperate high world

The South temperate Highveld ecoregion is classified under the freshwater biome of the Southern temperate air. The ecoregion comes from the South African countries of Swaziland, Lesotho, South Africa and Botswana. The region is characterized by rivers and seasonal pans. Sedimentary rocks are the main features on the plateau next to the dolomite. The climate in the region is temperate with rain from 1,400 to 400mm. Average temperatures are between 10 and 18 degrees Celsius. The waters in the region are home to a wide range of fish and birds. Rivers in Swaziland are threatened by the environment. Agricultural pollution and chemical spills have seriously affected the decline of marine species.

The Kingdom of Swaziland has made numerous efforts to protect its biodiversity in cooperation with environmental actors. Lubombo protection is the greatest of these efforts. The largest national park in the country known as the Royal Hlane National Park is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna and is located in a nature reserve. Swaziland is one of the developing countries and faces the problem of finding a balance between economic growth and environmental sustainability.

Ecological regions of Swaziland

Ecological regions of Swaziland Biome
Mosaic of Maputaland coastal forest Tropical and subtropical moist forests of deciduous trees
The forests of Zambeziana and Mopana Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and bush landscapes
Drakensberg Montana forests, grasslands and shrubs Montana lawns and shrubs
Zambezian Lowveld Zambezi fresh water
Southern temperate high world Southern moderate fresh water



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