Ecological regions of El Salvador


El Salvador is a small country in Central America and borders Guatemala and Honduras along the North Pacific. It is a tropical country with pronounced topographic fluctuations and seasonal rains. The ecology of El Salvador reflects the ecology of its Central American neighbors such as Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala. The country is rich in flora and fauna, some of which are classified as endangered or endangered.

Ecological regions of El Salvador

Central American dry forests

The ecological area of ​​the Central American dry forests is classified under tropical and subtropical forest deciduous forest biome. This ecoregion consists of dry forests native to the Latin American countries of El Salvador, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The region has a tropical climate, and the average annual rainfall is between 1,000 and 2,000 mm. The region has a dry season of 5 to 8 months. Ecoregion is characterized by deciduous trees that form the canopy of leaves and evergreen trees. Deciduous trees are the main members of the superfamily Leguminosae, while evergreen trees are part of the Rubiaceae family.

Plants in this ecoregion are highly endemic and include Myrospermum and Crescentia alata. The region is rich in bird life, including an endemic giant ron, a blue-tailed hummingbird and a white-bellied chachalaca. Endangered monkey spiders and numerous species of cats roam the ecoregion. Ecoregion is classified as critically endangered. The Government of El Salvador faces legal, institutional and financial challenges to effectively protect the flora and fauna of the region. Deininger National Park in El Salvador is the only dry forest reserve.

Central American forests of Montana

The ecoregion of Central American mountain forests is classified into tropical and subtropical moist forest biomes. This ecoregion is native to El Salvador, along with Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala. The ecoregion consists of sporadic forests on the slopes of the highest and loneliest peaks of El Salvador. The temperate climate in the region allows the flowering of different species of oak, conifers and maples. The annual rainfall in the peaks is between 2000 and 4000 mm. The ecoregion includes the endemic Horned Guan and the magnificent Quetzal, as well as numerous species of migratory birds. The plateaus in El Salvador are protected in small areas that do not adequately maintain the region’s biodiversity. The area was then classified as endangered.

Central American pine and oak forests

The Central American pine and oak forest is classified as a biome of tropical and subtropical coniferous forests. The ecoregion extends across El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala. In terms of altitude, the ecoregion is below 1,800 meters to 600 meters. The ecoregion is characterized by numerous tree species of pine, oak, cypress and fir.

The region is home to 100 mammals such as the Central American spider monkey, jaguar, cougar, cacomistle, bats and ocelot. The area is rich in avifauna, including an almost endangered black blanket and a red owl from Santa Barbara. Azure tanager and beetle are endangered bird species that inhabit the ecoregion.

Population pressure in this ecoregion continues to negatively affect its sustainability. Deforestation has removed the region’s primary forest cover. Montecristo National Park is the largest nature reserve in this ecoregion.

Fonseca Chiapas

The Fonseca Chiapas ecoregion is classified as a freshwater tropical and subtropical coastal river biome. The ecoregion includes El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico and Guatemala. The rivers El Salvador Güija, Ilopango, Coatepeque and Laguna de Olomega are located in this ecoregion.

The tropical climate in the region consists of a rainy season between May and October and a rainy season from November to April. Precipitation falls between 1400 and 1800 mm per year. Mangroves are predominantly vegetated along the coast. Endangered fish species C. trimaculatu and Cichlasoma guija live in the ecoregion. Endemic fish species in this ecoregion include catfish tonal, Oaxaca cichlids, black ray cichlids, and river stars. Pollution is a threat to marine life in this ecoregion.

Threats to El Salvador ecosystems

The mangroves of the Gulf of Fonseca, Nicaragua, Chiapasa and the mangroves of the northern dry Pacific coast are other ecological regions in El Salvador. The rapid population growth in El Salvador is one of the biggest threats to the country’s ecology. Deforestation and extensive agricultural practices are increasing in line with population growth. The identified protected areas in the country are insufficient for adequate protection of national biodiversity

Ecological regions of El Salvador

Ecological regions of El Salvador Biome
Central American dry forests Tropical and subtropical deciduous forests
Central American mountain forests Tropical and subtropical moist forests of deciduous trees
Central American pine and oak forests Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests
Fonseca Chiapas Freshwater tropical and subtropical coastal rivers
The mangroves of Fonseca Bay Mangroves
Nicaragua Chiapas Tropical East Pacific Navy
Mangroves of the northern dry coast of the Pacific Ocean Mangroves



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