Clouds are a collection of small drops of water and ice particles. When the temperature drops, the water vapor that is no longer contained in the air changes its appearance to water droplets or “ice crystals”.Ice crystals are grains of ice, which can be formed when the temperature is lower than 0 degrees. Where the air temperature above is lower than 0 degrees, there are ice crystals and”supercooled water droplets” that are not frozen even though the temperature is lower than 0 degrees. When supercooled water droplets hit the ice crystals, they quickly freeze and stick to the ice crystals. Thus the ice crystals grow. Become bigger and begin to fall.
In the center of ice crystals, in most cases, there are particles called”ice crystal nuclei”.Minerals and proteins made by living things. The moisture sticks to the ice core and becomes ice crystals. In the atmosphere, a lot of such fine particles are drifting, and it is collectively called an aerosol(aerosol). There are many different types of salt, such as those made by evaporation of droplets of the sea, those made by burning soot, sulfuric acid from the factory, and those made by changing the composition of nitric acid.
Aerosols have a great influence on the weather and climate. It changes the amount and nature of the cloud by reflecting light from the sun and reducing the amount of light reaching the surface, or by acting as a”condensation nucleus” or ice crystal nucleus, which is the center of the water droplets that make clouds. There are many unexplained parts of cloud formation, which have a great influence on weather and climate. The research group, assistant professor Yutaka OBO Yutaka of the National Institute of Polar Research, worked on the question of what kind of aerosols are effectively creating clouds in the Arctic.
The reason for the large temperature increase due to global warming is the high latitude areas such as the Arctic Circle. The Arctic land is widely covered by snow and ice. If snow and ice melt due to global warming and the ground appears, it is also expected that a lot of aerosols such as dust will dance in the air from there.If there are a lot of clouds, the degree of temperature increase may be different. How effectively does the blotch of the Arctic Circle work in the formation of clouds?
In the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago, floating in the Arctic Ocean, glaciers retreat in the summer, and the ground appears on its front. The Earth and sand contain a lot of particulates that can be scraped off the ground as the glaciers slowly descend. The researchers examined how effectively these particles had the ability to create ice crystals.
The effect of creating ice crystals is high ice nuclei, microparticles of proteins derived from living creatures are known from the prior art. When particles collected from the ground in the Svalbard islands were mixed with water droplets and cooled, it was found that they began to freeze at around minus 5 degrees Celsius. It’s almost as effective as a protein particle. When this fine particle was washed with hydrogen peroxide water to remove the biological component, it was almost the same effect as the ice crystal nuclei of only mineral particles. In other words, it is possible that the fine particles collected from the ground in the sub-barbaric islands are basically mineral particles, but some kind of biological component is added thereto obtain high capacity as ice nuclei. The identity of this ingredient is not yet known.
In addition, when the local atmosphere was collected and examined, the number of ice crystal nuclei drifting in the atmosphere was higher than that in the summer (7 May), when the land was covered with ice and snow, in the winter (3 months), the same level as that on the sea, but in the summer when the ground was exposed (7 months). The ice crystals in the summer seem to have originated in higher latitudes such as the Svalbard islands and Greenland.
In summary, this is what it is. In the high-latitude islands of Svalbard, located at about 80 degrees north latitude, the ground surface is exposed by retreating glaciers in the summer, ice crystals in the atmosphere to create a cloud of ice nuclei increased to the difference between winter and winter. The ice core contains biological material, so it has a very high ability to create ice crystals.
Ice crystals drifting in the Arctic Ocean’s atmosphere have been transported from deserts at low and middle latitudes and brought from nearby oceans as biological materials. What this study reveals is that the clouds in the Arctic region, at least in the summer, may have a significant impact on the amount of snow and snow melting on the ground.
In this study, which examines the ability of ice crystals to function as nuclei, only the Svalbard has been reported, but there have been reports that dust in the atmosphere increases during the summer in other regions of the Arctic Circle. Aerosols in the atmosphere, which are also air pollutants, can reflect sunlight and make clouds easier to create, greatly influencing changes in climate. It is a familiar and interesting field of research.