AVMA Collections: Zoonosis Updates

Potential zoonotic agents of bioterrorism

Anthrax
AnthraxHighlights:
•   Agent: Bacillus anthracis bacterium
•   Exposure to air is a key to sporulation
•   Death may be caused by toxins or bacteremia
 Disruption of infected carcasses a key to spreadView article   (PDF, 382 KB)
Sean V. Shadomy, Theresa L. Smith
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 Jul 1;233(1):63-72.
Arenaviruses
The arenavirusesHighlights:
•   Rodent-borne RNA viruses, e.g. Lassa virus
•   Category A bioterrorism pathogens
•   Viral hemorrhagic fever has high case fatality rate
 Veterinarians handling rodents must know risksView article   (PDF, 525 KB)
Michele T. Jay, Carol Glaser, Charles F. Fulhorst
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005 Sep 15;227(6):904-15.
BrucellosisMore in Additional resources
BrucellosisHighlights:
•   One of the oldest recognized bioterror agents
•   Abortion is most common sign in livestock
•   Typically transmitted via reproductive tissues, milk
 Slaughter of infected animals key to control
View article   (PDF, 564 KB)
M. Kathleen Glynn, Tracey V. Lynn
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 Sep 15;233(6):900-8.
Filoviruses
Filovirus infectionsHighlights:
•   Ebola, Marburg viruses make up this group
•   Human infection linked to primates, bats
•   Highly virulent with mortality rate near 90%
 Need improved surveillance of outbreaksView article   (PDF, 451 KB)
Kelly L. Warfield, Emily M. Deal, Sina Bavari
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 May 1;234(9):1130-9.
Glanders
GlandersHighlights:
•   Highly contagious disease of horses, mules
•   Respiratory, cutaneous, lymphatic nodules seen
•   Has been used historically as bioterrorism agent
 Caution: Treating animals may create carrier stateView article   (PDF, 354 KB)
Glenda D. Dvorak, Anna R. Spickler
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 Aug 15;233(4):570-7.
Hantaviruses
Hantaviruses: etiologic agents of rare, but potentially life-threatening zoonotic diseasesHighlights:
•   Rodent-borne viruses, e.g. Sin Nombre Virus
•   In US, causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
•   1993 outbreak: 38% case fatality rate
 Take precautions when handling mice, habitats
View article   (PDF, 108 KB)
Charles H. Calisher, James N. Mills, J. Jeffrey Root, Barry J. Beaty
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Jan 15;222(2):163-6.
Plague
Plague: a veterinary perspectiveHighlights:
•   Agent: Yersinia pestis bacterium
•   5-15 human cases reported in US each year
•   Cat-associated plague first reported in 1977
 Do not send cats home if plague is suspected
View article   (PDF, 87 KB)
Kathleen A. Orloski, Sarah L. Lathrop
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Feb 15;222(4):444-8.
Psittacosis
Psittacosis/avian chlamydiosisHighlights:
•   Agent: Chlamydophila psittaci bacterium
•   Affects 150 avian, many mammalian species
•   Diverse illnesses possible in human infection
 Human infection a serious risk in poultry industry
View article   (PDF, 93 KB)
Millicent Eidson
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Dec 15;221(12):1710-2.
Q fever
Q feverHighlights:
•   Agent: Coxiella burnetii rickettsial bacterium
•   Key route: Aerosolized infected parturient tissues
•   Chronic disease can be deadly
 Livestock workers at greatest risk of exposure
View article   (PDF, 61 KB)
Jennifer H. McQuiston, James E. Childs, Herbert A. Thompson
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Sep 15;221(6):796-9.
Rift Valley fever virus
Rift Valley fever virusHighlights:
•   Mosquito-borne pathogen of livestock, humans
•   Hallmark: Abortion storms after heavy rain
•   Disease often recognized in humans first
 One-medicine approach is critical
View article   (PDF, 730 KB)
Brian H. Bird, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Stuart T. Nichol, N. James MacLachlan
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Apr 1;234(7):883-893.
Tularemia
TularemiaHighlights:
•   Agent: Francisella tularensis coccobacillus
•   Also known as “rabbit fever”
•   Pneumonic form: 60% untreated fatality rate
 Aerosolized form has potential for great harm
View article   (PDF, 285 KB)
Katherine Anne Feldman
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Mar 15;222(6):725-30.
General
Biological terrorism against animals and humans: a brief review and primer for actionHighlights:
•   Veterinarians are key in disease surveillance
•   Agricultural bioterrorism a serious threat
•   Production in livestock should be monitored
 CE on foreign animal diseases needed
View article   (PDF, 55 KB)
Donald L. Noah, Harvey R. Crowder
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Jul 1;221(1):40-3.
 
Other pathogens with human health consequences
 
 
Animal bites
Animal bitesHighlights:
•   Greatest risk: Dogs familiar to victim, home setting
•   Hand wounds most prone to complications
•   Animals with prior biting history more likely to bite
 Be aware of potential for occult trauma
View article   (PDF, 392 KB)
Gary J. Patronek, Sally A. Slavinski
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Feb 1;234(3):336-45.
Aquatic zoonoses
Aquatic zoonoses associated with food, bait, ornamental, and tropical fishHighlights:
•   Bacteria are most common zoonotic agents
•   Mycobacterium spp: “fish handlers’ disease”
•   Abrasions are most common means of exposure
 Gloves should be worn whenever handling fish
View article   (PDF, 305 KB)
Toby Lowry, Stephen A. Smith
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007 Sep 15;231(6):876-80.
Avian influenza
Avian influenza and Newcastle diseaseHighlights:
•   Avian influenza viruses pose low risk to humans
•   Newcastle disease in humans mild, self-limiting
•   NDV has potential anticancer activity
 Human infections with AIV, NDV are rare
View article   (PDF, 182 KB)
David E. Swayne, Daniel J. King
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Jun 1;222(11):1534-40.
Bartonellosis
Cat scratch disease and other zoonotic Bartonella infectionsHighlights:
•   Primary agent: Bartonella henselae bacterium
•   Cats are main reservoir; also rodents
•   B berkhoffii a cause of endocarditis in dogs
 Suspect B berkhoffii in dogs with cardiac disease
View article   (PDF, 178 KB)
Bruno B. Chomel, Henri Jean Boulouis, Edward B. Breitschwerdt
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004 Apr 15;224(8):1270-9.
BorreliosisMore in Additional resources
Lyme borreliosisHighlights:
•   Agent: Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete
•   Red, expanding rash early sign in humans
•   Dogs most commonly develop lameness, fever
 Prompt removal of ticks important
View article   (PDF, 151 KB)
Curtis L. Fritz, Anne M. Kjemtrup
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Nov 1;223(9):1261-70.
Campylobacteriosis
Human campylobacteriosis: a challenge for the veterinary professionHighlights:
•   Campylobacter spp causes of foodborne illness
•   Poultry, unpasteurized milk sources of infection
•   5% of infections related to contact with dogs, cats
 Fluoroquinolone resistance a challenge
View article   (PDF, 445 KB)
Sean F. Altekruse, Linda K. Tollefson
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Aug 15;223(4):445-52.
Ehrlichiosis
Ehrlichiosis and related infectionsHighlights:
•   Agents: Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp bacteria
•   Transmitted via tick bites
•   German Shepherd Dogs may be severely affected
 Delayed treatment may result in serious disease
View article   (PDF, 2044 KB)
Jennifer H. McQuiston, Candace L. McCall, William L. Nicholson
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Dec 15;223(12):1750-6.
Escherichia coliMore in Additional resources
Animal issues associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7Highlights:
•   1 in 4 cattle at slaughter shedding E coli O157:H7
•   Undercooked beef source of infection in humans
•   Antimicrobial resistance is low
 Efforts to reduce fecal shedding in cattle are key
View article   (PDF, 69 KB)
Susan Sanchez, Margie D. Lee, Barry G. Harmon, John J. Maurer, Michael P. Doyle
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Oct 15;221(8):1122-6.
LeptospirosisMore in Additional resources
LeptospirosisHighlights:
•   Rodents are most important maintenance hosts
•   Water contaminated with urine a common source
•   Cases in dogs have increased in US, Canada
 Use gloves, goggles to prevent in-clinic exposure
View article   (PDF, 322 KB)
Marta A. Guerra
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Feb 15;234(4):472-8.
Prion diseasesMore in Additional resources
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathiesHighlights:
•   Prions: Abnormal isoforms of a cellular protein
•   Cause of progressive, fatal neurodegeneration
•   TSEs identified in various animals, humans
 BSE, vCJD show species barrier can be breached
View article   (PDF, 420 KB)
James J. Sejvar, Lawrence B. Schonberger, Ermias D. Belay
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 Dec 1;233(11):1705-12.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathyHighlights:
•   Slow-onset, fatal encephalopathy of cattle
•   Transmitted via ingestion of infected CNS tissue
•   Mean incubation period in cattle is 4.5 to 5.5 years
 Currently no test available for BSE in living animals
View article   (PDF, 244 KB)
Jane L. Harman, Christopher J. Silva
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Jan 1;234(1):59-72.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Rocky Mountain spotted feverHighlights:
•   Rickettsia rickettsii an intracellular bacterium
•   Dogs and humans have clinical illness
•   Rickettsiae induce vasculitis, thrombosis
 Prompt removal of ticks, early diagnosis important
View article   (PDF, 100 KB)
Ronald D. Warner, Wallace W. Marsh
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Nov 15;221(10):1413-7.
Salmonellosis
Animal sources of salmonellosis in humansHighlights:
•   Salmonella spp causes of foodborne illness
•   Poultry, meat, eggs are most common sources
•   Inapparent carrier state in animals a concern
 Prevention of reintroduction is key control strategy
View article   (PDF, 72 KB)
Susan Sanchez, Charles L. Hofacre, Margie D. Lee, John J. Maurer, Michael P. Doyle
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Aug 15;221(4):492-7.
Screwworms
ScrewwormsHighlights:
•   Screwworms a threat to US livestock industry
•   Eradicated in 1966, but reintroduction a concern
•   Persons, animals at risk if visit endemic countries
 Be alert to wounds, myiasis in animals from Iraq
View article   (PDF, 879 KB)
James L. Alexander
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Feb 1;228(3):357-67.
Sporotrichosis
SporotrichosisHighlights:
•   Sporothrix schenckii a dimorphic fungus
•   Disease often seen in gardeners
•   Cats are key source of transmission to humans
 Yeast-like cells on cytologic exam are diagnostic
View article   (PDF, 186 KB)
Ronald D. Welsh
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Oct 15;223(8):1123-6.
Tuberculosis
TuberculosisHighlights:
•   Mycobacterium bovis can cause human infection
•   M bovis spreads from wild to domestic animals
•   Principal sign: emaciation despite good nutrition
 Tuberculin skin test a practical diagnostic method
View article   (PDF, 128 KB)
John B. Kaneene, Charles O. Thoen
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004 Mar 1;224(5):685-91.
West Nile virusMore in Additional resources
West Nile virusHighlights:
•   Top cause of human arboviral encephalitis in US
•   Virus transmitted from wild birds to mosquitoes
•   Horses, humans highly susceptible to disease
 Potential zoonotic risk via fecal, oral shedding
View article   (PDF, 121 KB)
Rosalie Trevejo, Millicent Eidson
Originally published in J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 May 1;232(9):1302-9.